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Authority record

Gour, M.

  • Person
  • 18--

M. Gour was an ordained priest of French nationality. Rev. Gour was the first resident pastor of Sacred Heart Parish, Conche, Newfoundland. He remained there from 1873-1883. The Newfoundland Almanac for 1883 notes that he was working at Labouche, Fogo.

Grace, Thomas

  • Person
  • ca.1751-1827

Thomas Grace (ca. 1751-1827), Catholic priest, was born in Knocktoper, County Kilkenny, Ireland, circa 1751. He was ordained a Capuchin priest at Bar-sur-Aube, France in 1778.

Coady served for a short time as a missionary in St. Mary's Bay, Newfoundland, before arriving in Nova Scotia in 1789. He then moved to Minudie, New Brunswick, and later to Prospect, near Halifax, Nova Scotia, where he died in 1827.

Graham, Frank William

  • Person
  • 1906-1991

Frank William Graham (1906-1991), athlete, author, sports historian and archivist was born in St. John's, Newfoundland, on 10 April 1906. He was unmarried. Graham died on 17 September 1991 in Peterborough, Ontario and is buried in St. John's.

Graham was educated at St. Bonaventure's College, St. John's. He was employed by Imperial Oil for 35 years and served as Corner Brook's western sales manager for four years (1950-1954). He retired in 1964.

Throughout Graham's life he was an avid sports enthusiast. As a young man he played on the St. Bonaventure's intercollegiate soccer and hockey teams (1924-1926) and was a member of six Boyle Trophy championship teams (1928, 1930-1933, 1938). He remained an avid golfer and fisherman throughout his life. He was secretary of the Newfoundland and Labrador Sports Hall of Fame (founded 1973) selection committee (1973-1975), honourary secretary (1975-1977), and a member of the Hall of Fame Board of Governors (1979-1981). He was inducted into the Sports Hall of Fame 2 November 1985. As Sports Archivist he accumulated an extensive variety of sports history and memorabilia. Graham served as first Sports Archivist from 1974 until his death.

Intensely interested in Newfoundland history Frank Graham was the author of three books, "We love thee Newfoundland": a biography of Cavendish Boyle (1979), Ahead of Her Time; a Biography of Ellen Carberry (1987), and Ready - Set - Go! A St. John's Sports Pictorial (1988), and was a frequent contributor to the local Seniors' News, a St. John's publication.

Grand Falls Presbytery of the United Church of Canada

  • Corporate body
  • 1925-1968

Responsibility for the area covered by the Grand Falls District of the Methodist Church of Canada was transferred to the Grand Falls Presbytery of the United Church of Canada in 1925. Grand Falls Presbytery was briefly (1928 - 1929) attached to Bonavista Presbytery. The Presbytery included Labrador from 1962 - 1968. In 1968 it was divided between Terra Nova and Humber Presbyteries.

Graves, William

  • Person
  • fl.1815-1856

William Graves (fl. 1815-1856), merchant of New Ross, Ireland, was involved in the emigrant trade from New Ross to Quebec in the first half of the nineteenth century. William was the son of Anthony Graves, a banker in Thomastown, Co. Kilkenny. Facing financial difficulty in 1805, Anthony Graves moved with his family to New Ross, where he established himself as a merchant.

Anthony's son William continued the trade and formed a partnership with Sandham Elly, a brother-in-law and member of a Quaker merchant family in New Ross. By 1815, the firm was engaged in the emigrant trade from New Ross to Quebec. By 1825, Graves and Elly owned four large ships, all committed to the Quebec route, transporting emigrants to Quebec and carrying timber home.

The firm was dissolved in 1827. Graves established a business relationship with another Quaker merchant, a Mr. Watson. The new firm was a recruiting agent for the Canada Company (Ontario) in 1830. It also operated a 400-ton steamer between Ross and Liverpool. The Graves family continued with the Quebec trade until 1850 , as well as the emigrant traffic to Boston. By 1856, however, it was primarily involved in the supply trade. Its premises on the Ross quay were finally dismantled in the 1980s.

Great Britain. Colonial Office

  • Corporate body
  • 1854-1966

The Colonial Office was the administrative office of the British Secretary of State for the Colonies, the cabinet minister designated with the responsibility for the administration of the colonies in the British Empire. Although formally established in 1854 as a separate office, the Colonial Office was preceded by several government agencies which supervised colonial affairs, dating back to the mid-seventeenth century.

Although England acquired colonies (or plantations) early in the seventeenth century, there was no formal organization which dealt specifically with colonial administration until 1660. In 1660 a Committee of the Privy Council for the Plantations (1660-75) was formed (later the Council for Foreign Plantations). The council reviewed colonial laws and provided instructions to the governors. Although there was a brief amalgamation with the Council of Trade, a privy council committee responsible for British commerce, as the Council for Trade and Plantations (1672-74), the Council for Foreign Plantations functioned until 1675 when it was replaced by the Lords of Trade and Plantations, commonly called the Board of Trade.

The Board of Trade (1696-1782), established by William III, consisted of ministers of state, under a president. Its mandate was to advise the crown on issues relating to plantations, trade and poor law. In practice, it focused on the administration of the colonies, especially instructions to the governors, colonial legislation, administration of justice, and colonial appointments. The Board of Trade was officially subordinate to the secretaries of state; the latter, however, relied on the board for direction on colonial issues. In 1768, a Secretary of State for the American Department was established in a vain effort to avert conflict in the American colonies.

Following the loss of the American colonies, both the Secretary of State for the American Department and the Board of Trade were eliminated (1782) although the board was briefly revived in 1784 and 1794 respectively. The Board of Trade was replaced by the Plantations Branch in the Home Office.

During the Napoleonic wars, the office of the third secretary of state was created to supervise the conduct of the war. In 1801 the British government established a War and Colonial Department under a single secretary of state and responsibility for colonial affairs was transferred from the Home Office to the newly-created department. Following the end of the French wars (1815), colonial administration became the primary role for the new department. From 1822 the Colonial Office was organized into four geographical departments, one of which was North America (including Bermuda).

In 1854 the commencement of the Crimean War and reforms in the British civil service prompted the division of the War and Colonial Department. A separate Colonial Office, under a secretary of state for the colonies, was established. During the imperialist expansion into Africa, Asia and India, the Secretary of State and the Colonial Office became one of the most significant ministries in the British government.

The Secretary of State for the Colonies was usually an influential politician; five of the twelve British prime ministers had been responsible for the ministry. In the nineteenth century, the administration of the Colonial Office became increasingly professionalized, with emphasis on diligent civil servants, and careful records-keeping. In the 1820s, the Blue Books were instituted, requiring colonies to return annual reports (on pre-printed blue forms) on population, trade, revenue, officials and salaries, public institutions and local government. In 1837, the Colonial Office ordered the bi-annual submissions of colonial gazettes which published ordinances, legislation, government and professional regulations, land and mine grants, official appointments, and liquidations. The office also introduced a registry system for all correspondence, with multiple, interlinking entry books.

The emergence of self-governing colonies in British North America, New Zealand and Australia challenged the administrative structure of the Colonial Office. In 1907, following the Imperial Conference, the Colonial Office was divided: the Crown Colonies Division for dependencies and the Dominions Division for self-governing colonies. In 1925, a separate Dominions Office was created, with responsibilities for self-governing colonies.

With the creation of the Dominions Office, the Colonial Office declined in importance, although it retained general responsibility for the colonies. In 1966 the Colonial Office merged with the Commonwealth Relations Office to form the Commonwealth Office.

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