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Corpus Christi Parish (Northern Bay, N.L. : Catholic)

  • Collectivité
  • 1838-

The centre of Corpus Christi Parish is the community of Northern Bay on the north shore of Conception Bay, Newfoundland. The parish was established in 1838, predating the Diocese of Harbour Grace by eighteen years. Currently Corpus Christi Parish has missions in Kingston (Saint Joseph's Church) and in Western Bay (Holy Rosary Church).

A church and school were constructed in the 1840s under the direction of Reverend Bernard Duffy, who served the parish for 33 years. In the 1890s a new two-room school was constructed under the supervision of Reverend John Roe to accommodate the growing number of children in Northern Bay. Reverend John Lynch (1906-1915) started the construction of a new church which was destroyed by fire shortly after its completion in 1924. Lynch's successor, Reverend Edward O'Brien, built a modern two-room school, a new presbytery and other buildings including a new hall which served as a church for a number of years.

Pastors that have served Corpus Christi Parish since the tenure of Reverend Bernard Duffy include: Joseph Donnelly (1871-1874); James Cummins (1874-1875); Michael Hanley (1875-1891); John Roe (1891-1906); Michael Nowlan (1906); John Lynch (1906-1915); Edward O'Brien (1915-1970); Edward Hearn (1970-1973); Gregory Pumphrey (1973-1978); David Heale (1978-1981); Kevin Barker (1981-1984); William Matthews (1984-1991); Brian Colbert (1991-1994); Francis Alyward (1994-1998); Michael Ryan (1998-).

St. Michael's Parish (Bell Island, N.L. : Catholic)

  • Collectivité
  • 1875-

Initially, Bell Island fell within the expansive territorial boundaries of Holy Rosary Parish (Portugal Cove) and was served by visiting clergymen. In 1875, Thomas J. Power, Bishop of St. John's, erected St. Michael's Parish on the Island, although it was not until August 1903 that the foundation stone of the first parish church was laid. St. Michael's Church was opened and blessed in June 1907 by Bishop Michael F. Howley (prior to this, services were held in a small chapel). The development of the parish's infrastructure following the completion of St. Michael's Church is somewhat unique in that several other churches were built to serve a relatively small territory, leading to a common misconception that more than one parish existed on Bell Island. St. Peter's Church was built on "the Green" around 1912 to serve the growing population at Wabana. It was replaced by St. James's Church on Town Square in 1938. Sacred Heart Church was built at Lance Cove in the mid-1940s and Immaculate Conception Church was built over St. James's Church in 1954. Immaculate Conception was destroyed by fire in 1969, but it was replaced with a new structure, also dedicated to the Immaculate Conception, in 1972. The original St. Michael's Church was torn down in the mid-1980s because of structural weakness. Immaculate Conception was renamed St. Michael's and became the titular parish church; the other structures closed due to Bell Island's declining population after the closure of the iron ore mines in 1966.

Schools also formed an important part of St. Michael's parochial organization. A Catholic school was in operation on Bell Island as early as 1878, although the first Roman Catholic school board was not appointed until 1898. In 1901, Superior School, the first local Catholic high school, was opened. In 1917, the Sisters of Mercy arrived on Bell Island, establishing St. Edward's Convent and assuming teaching responsibilities. A second community of Mercy Sisters, incorporated as Immaculate Conception Convent, was established in 1927 at Wabana to serve the growing population of the Island. At its height, the parish supported seven schools: St. Edward's and St. Michael's Boys' Schools at "the Front", Immaculate Conception on Town Square, St. Kevin's Boys' School at "the Mines", Sacred Heart at Lance Cove, St. Cecilia's at "the West Mines", and St. Theresa's at "the East End". In June 1969, the Immaculate Conception Convent closed in response to the Island's declining population, and its residents amalgamated with St. Edward's Convent. Eventually, as a result of fire and consolidation, only two Roman Catholic schools remained on Bell Island - Immaculate Conception for primary and elementary students and St. Michael's High School. These schools are no longer under church control as a result of denominational education reforms passed by the Provincial Government in 1997.

St. Michael's established an appointed Parish Council some time after the reforms of Vatican II to help administer parish affairs (elected 1984 and onwards). The parish also maintains close relations with numerous lay societies and organizations that are active within parish life. Such past and present bodies include the Star of the Sea Society, the St. Francis Guild, the St. Anne's Sodality, the Children of Mary, the Knights of Columbus, the Catholic Women's League, the St. Kevin's Cadet Corps, the Altar Society, and the Youth Ministry Organization (this list is not exhaustive).

Pastors who have served St. Michael's Parish since its establishment in 1875 include: Richard Dunphy (1875-1880); Lawrence Vereker (1880-1884); Francis McCullow (1884-1892); Patrick O'Brien (1892-1896); James J. McGrath (1896-1938); George F. Bartlett (1938-1956); John W. McGettigan (1956-[1960?]); Michael T. Connolly ([1960?]-1962); Eric R. Lawlor (1962-1969); Valentine Power (1969); Richard D. McHugh (1969-1980); Daniel McGettigan (1980-1982); Joseph Barton (1980-[1986?]); David Butler ([1986?]-1998); and Fred Brown (1998- ).

Marketing Administration Committee

  • Collectivité
  • 1943-1947

The Marketing Administration Committee (MAC), a Newfoundland agency, was established in 1943 to coordinate the fish quotas determined by the Combined Food Board, established by the Allied powers in World War II. The quotas were divided among the Portugal Exporters Group (PEG), Spain Exporters Group (SEAL), West Indies Codfish Association, and the Puerto Rico Exporters Group. MAC was replaced by the Newfoundland Associated Fish Exporters Limited (NAFEL) in 1947.

Hilyard Brothers (firm)

  • Collectivité
  • [184/5-]1915

Hilyard Brothers was an extensive lumber and shipbuilding business, established in New Brunswick by Thomas Hilyard (1810-1872) in the mid-1800s. Thomas was born at Saint John, New Brunswick, in October 1810, the son of Thomas Hilyard and Margaret Miles. He married Matilda Dyer (1821-1896) and they had sixteen children. Hilyard died in 1872 at Saint John.

Little is known of Hilyard's activities prior to 1852. In 1842 he described himself as a shipwright; he was also a registered shipowner. With the construction of two big ships in 1852, he commenced ship building on a large scale. He obtained a shipyard in Portland, Saint John County initially by lease and later by purchase. In 1854, he acquired an adjoining steam sawmill. In 1856 or 1857, he expanded by leasing and subsequently purchasing a neighbouring shipyard from John Haws, who was then the leading shipbuilder in the area.

Hilyard launched at least 48 vessels, a number surpassed by few Canadian builders. His larger ships were often sold to major shipowners in Liverpool, England while the smaller vessels were generally purchased locally. He gained a high reputation as a shipbuilder and the quality and quantity of his ships and the extent of his saw milling operations made him a leading figure in the economic life of the Saint John region.

Following Hilyard's death in 1872, his two sons, Thomas K. and Henry (1848-1909) continued the enterprise, moving into vessel repair and lumbering. The business closed in 1915.

British Wesleyan Methodist Conference. Newfoundland District

  • Collectivité
  • 1816 – 1855

The Methodist missions in Newfoundland were administered directly from England until 1816. In that year the missions were erected into a district of the British Wesleyan Methodist Conference under the supervision of the Wesleyan Missionary Society. In 1855 the districts of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Bermuda and Newfoundland were formed into the Wesleyan Methodist Conference of Eastern British America. For a discussion of the history of the various Methodist bodies in Canada see Neil Semple, The Lord’s Dominion (Montreal, 1996). For a detailed history of the Methodist Church of Canada in Newfoundland and Labrador see D.W. Johnson, Methodism in Eastern British America (Sackville, N.B., 1924).

United Church of Canada. Grand Bank Pastoral Charge

  • Collectivité
  • 1816-

Grand Bank became the headquarters for the Fortune Bay Methodist Mission in the Newfoundland District of the British Wesleyan Conference in 1816. The mission embraced all points from Lamaline to Port aux Basques. Rev. Richard Knight was appointed the first missionary there, and in his two-year term, he "formed classses in both Grand Bank and Fortune."

Evidence of the places ministered by the early Fortune Bay missionaries is anecdotal and sporadic. In a report to the missionary committee in 1819, for example, Rev. John Haigh, Knight's successor noted that he had visited Harbor Briton, Jersey Harbour, and Little Bay. In 1827, another minister reported visiting Gaultos and Bay D'Espoir, and from 1827 to 1830, ministers wrote of ministering to Frenchman's Cove, Harbour Breton, Jersey Harbour, Grand Beach, Lamaline, St. Jacques, and Round Harbour.

The first chapel in Grand Bank was built in 1817. It was replaced with a new structure in 1846 that could seat about 400 people. The old chapel was converted for use as a day school, Sunday school, and hall for social service. In 1876, a new church with a capacity of 1200 replaced the smaller chapel. By 1964, construction had begun on the present day-building, which was opened in 1965.

Various communities were dropped from the visiting roster of Grand Bank missionaries as other missions were established in the area: the Burin Circuit in 1817; Garnish in 1866; Fortune in 1878. Furthermore, Grand Bank was replaced by Hermitage as headquarters for the Fortune Bay Mission in 1840. By 1900, the only community listed in the Grand Bank register outside the main community was Molliers. In 1925, the mission became a Pastoral Charge in the Newfoundland Conference of the United Church of Canada. In 1928, Grand Bank was listed as the only "preaching place" in the charge.

Holy Cross Parish (Holyrood, N.L. : Catholic)

  • Collectivité
  • 1883-

Holy Cross Parish is located in Holyrood, at the head of Conception Bay, and was officially established in 1883 as a parish in the Diocese of Harbour Grace. Holyrood was settled in the late 1700s by Irishmen, a number of Mik'maq from Placentia Bay and a few Portuguese. While the population increased steadily, the community remained almost exclusively Roman Catholic. Prior to the establishment of a parish, a mission church had existed in the community for roughly fifty years, with priests visiting from Harbour Grace and later Harbour Main.

The first parish priest of Holy Cross Parish was Reverend Gregory Battcock. His successor, Reverend Michael Hanley supervised the construction of a new church to replace the old mission chapel. This church burned down in 1918 and was replaced by a new one in 1919. During the tenure of Reverend William McCormack Murphy, schools were built in the communities of North Arm, Newton, South Side and Central Holyrood and in 1959 a new high school was opened in Holyrood. Reverend Edward Shea (1965-1981) built a new presbytery which was also the meeting place of the parish council and most of the parish communities. In 1989, Reverend William Houlahan was made parish priest of Harbour Main, uniting the two communities.

Pastors that have served Holy Cross Parish since its inception include: Gregory Battcock (1883-1891); Michael Hanley (1891-1900); Joseph Murphy (1900-1908); Gregory Battcock (1908-1910); James Donnelly (1910-1913); William P. Finn (1913-1935); Peddle (1935-1940); William McCormack Murphy (1940-1959); Michael James Kinsella (1959-1965); Edward Shea (1965-1981); Raymond Lahey (1980-1982); William P. Hogan (1982-1988); Joseph Crawford (1988-1989); William Houlahan (1989-1991), Edward T. Bromley (1991-1996); Wayne Cummings (1996-1998); Brian Dunn (1998- ).

International Grenfell Association

  • Collectivité
  • 1914-

The International Grenfell Association (IGA), a non-profit, philanthropic organization, was established as the coordinating agency for four regional associations which supported the medical, religious and social initiatives of the Grenfell Mission in northern Newfoundland and Labrador, as well as on the southern coast of the Canadian Labrador. The IGA was incorporated on 10 January 1914, but the association originated in the initiatives of physician and surgeon Wilfred Thomason Grenfell (1865-1940), to secure adequate medical care and improved social conditions in the region.

In 1892, Grenfell, a medical missionary with the National Mission to Deep Sea Fishermen (NMDSF) - a British evangelical Christian charity ministering to British offshore fishermen - visited northern Newfoundland and coastal Labrador to investigate reports of inadequate medical services for the thousands of migratory fishermen who went annually to the coast of Labrador from the island of Newfoundland, as well as the settlers (livyers) in Labrador. Perceiving an urgent need to provide improved medical assistance, Grenfell returned in 1893 with two nurses and two doctors, under the auspices of the NMDSF, determined to establish a system of medical care for northern Newfoundland and Labrador.

Grenfell established small hospitals at Battle Harbour (1893) and Indian Harbour (1894), and a secured a hospital ship which undertook summer visits along the Labrador coast. Grenfell and his associates (commonly termed the Grenfell Mission) also became involved in efforts to improve social welfare and to promote social and economic development. The mission built an orphanage, established boarding schools, and introduced industrial arts training (including rug hooking, weaving, carving, leather work and toy making) with the help of qualified volunteers (called "workers without pay" or "wops"). Grenfell personally encouraged the establishment of cooperatives, the first of which was founded in Red Bay in 1896. Other experiments included agricultural programs, the introduction of domesticated reindeer, and the promotion of tourism.

Associations were established in Newfoundland, Canada, the United States and Great Britain to support Grenfell's work, which, by 1914, had become a diverse philanthropic movement. This movement was created mainly by the energetic and charismatic Grenfell who divided his time between active missionary work and lecture tours to raise funds for his activities, particularly in the United States and Canada.

Initially, the IGA represented the Grenfell Association of Newfoundland (est. 1899, St. John's); the Grenfell Association of New England (est. 1904, Boston); the Grenfell Association of America (est. 1907, New York); and the Grenfell Labrador Medical Association (est. 1909, Ottawa). The IGA later included representatives from the Grenfell Association of Great Britain and Ireland (est. 1927, London) and the Grenfell Labrador Industries (incorporated 1934-5).

The IGA hired staff, recruited volunteers and allocated funds for mission projects and operations. It relied on the other support bodies and Grenfell's own fund-raising efforts (lectures and publications) for most of its finances. When Grenfell resigned from active direction (1936), retaining only the honorary title Superintendent, the IGA restructured. By then the IGA owned two hospital ships, six hospitals, seven nursing clinics and four boarding schools, and operated the King George V Seamen's Institute in St. John's. At St. Anthony, the headquarters of the medical mission since 1899, the IGA established farms, greenhouses, ship repair facilities and a machine shop as well as a hospital, an orphanage and a boarding school. The IGA also sustained industrial arts industries in many communities. The association had a permanent staff of over 50 paid employees, but much of the mission work was done by volunteers from Canada, the United States, Britain and Newfoundland.

Following the completion of a consultant's report (Tamblyn Brown, 1938) on its operations, the IGA was reorganized. Further changes were implemented after the death of Grenfell (1940), in response to health care developments during World War II and in Newfoundland both before and following confederation with Canada (1949). Most importantly, other agencies, especially government, became increasingly involved in providing medical and social services in the regions formerly served only by the Association. In 1978, the business offices of the IGA were moved from Ottawa to St. Anthony.

The IGA continued to be the main agency responsible for health care in northern Newfoundland and Labrador and to operate the other projects initiated by Grenfell until 1981. That year, the Grenfell Regional Health Services Board was created which effectively transferred the provision of medical services and its facilities from the IGA to a provincial authority under the Department of Health. The IGA ceased to be a governing body.

The IGA, now based in St. John's, has become a charitable foundation in support of various medical, educational and community projects in northern Newfoundland and Labrador. Its funding sources include endowment funds from the regional Grenfell associations in New York, Boston and London. The Board of Directors include representatives from the regional associations, as well as two nominees from Memorial University of Newfoundland.

Newfoundland Medical Board

  • Collectivité
  • 1893

The Newfoundland Medical Board was established in 1893 as a statutory body by the Legislative Council and House of Assembly of the Colony of Newfoundland with powers for “the making and enforcing of measures necessary for the regulation and practice of medicine, and the protection and preservation of life and health”.
The Medical Act, 2005 continued the Newfoundland Medical Board under the name of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Newfoundland and Labrador.

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