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The International Grenfell Association (IGA), a non-profit, philanthropic organization, was established as the coordinating agency for four regional associations which supported the medical, religious and social initiatives of the Grenfell Mission in northern Newfoundland and Labrador, as well as on the southern coast of the Canadian Labrador. The IGA was incorporated on 10 January 1914, but the association originated in the initiatives of physician and surgeon Wilfred Thomason Grenfell (1865-1940), to secure adequate medical care and improved social conditions in the region.
In 1892, Grenfell, a medical missionary with the National Mission to Deep Sea Fishermen (NMDSF) - a British evangelical Christian charity ministering to British offshore fishermen - visited northern Newfoundland and coastal Labrador to investigate reports of inadequate medical services for the thousands of migratory fishermen who went annually to the coast of Labrador from the island of Newfoundland, as well as the settlers (livyers) in Labrador. Perceiving an urgent need to provide improved medical assistance, Grenfell returned in 1893 with two nurses and two doctors, under the auspices of the NMDSF, determined to establish a system of medical care for northern Newfoundland and Labrador.
Grenfell established small hospitals at Battle Harbour (1893) and Indian Harbour (1894), and a secured a hospital ship which undertook summer visits along the Labrador coast. Grenfell and his associates (commonly termed the Grenfell Mission) also became involved in efforts to improve social welfare and to promote social and economic development. The mission built an orphanage, established boarding schools, and introduced industrial arts training (including rug hooking, weaving, carving, leather work and toy making) with the help of qualified volunteers (called "workers without pay" or "wops"). Grenfell personally encouraged the establishment of cooperatives, the first of which was founded in Red Bay in 1896. Other experiments included agricultural programs, the introduction of domesticated reindeer, and the promotion of tourism.
Associations were established in Newfoundland, Canada, the United States and Great Britain to support Grenfell's work, which, by 1914, had become a diverse philanthropic movement. This movement was created mainly by the energetic and charismatic Grenfell who divided his time between active missionary work and lecture tours to raise funds for his activities, particularly in the United States and Canada.
Initially, the IGA represented the Grenfell Association of Newfoundland (est. 1899, St. John's); the Grenfell Association of New England (est. 1904, Boston); the Grenfell Association of America (est. 1907, New York); and the Grenfell Labrador Medical Association (est. 1909, Ottawa). The IGA later included representatives from the Grenfell Association of Great Britain and Ireland (est. 1927, London) and the Grenfell Labrador Industries (incorporated 1934-5).
The IGA hired staff, recruited volunteers and allocated funds for mission projects and operations. It relied on the other support bodies and Grenfell's own fund-raising efforts (lectures and publications) for most of its finances. When Grenfell resigned from active direction (1936), retaining only the honorary title Superintendent, the IGA restructured. By then the IGA owned two hospital ships, six hospitals, seven nursing clinics and four boarding schools, and operated the King George V Seamen's Institute in St. John's. At St. Anthony, the headquarters of the medical mission since 1899, the IGA established farms, greenhouses, ship repair facilities and a machine shop as well as a hospital, an orphanage and a boarding school. The IGA also sustained industrial arts industries in many communities. The association had a permanent staff of over 50 paid employees, but much of the mission work was done by volunteers from Canada, the United States, Britain and Newfoundland.
Following the completion of a consultant's report (Tamblyn Brown, 1938) on its operations, the IGA was reorganized. Further changes were implemented after the death of Grenfell (1940), in response to health care developments during World War II and in Newfoundland both before and following confederation with Canada (1949). Most importantly, other agencies, especially government, became increasingly involved in providing medical and social services in the regions formerly served only by the Association. In 1978, the business offices of the IGA were moved from Ottawa to St. Anthony.
The IGA continued to be the main agency responsible for health care in northern Newfoundland and Labrador and to operate the other projects initiated by Grenfell until 1981. That year, the Grenfell Regional Health Services Board was created which effectively transferred the provision of medical services and its facilities from the IGA to a provincial authority under the Department of Health. The IGA ceased to be a governing body.
The IGA, now based in St. John's, has become a charitable foundation in support of various medical, educational and community projects in northern Newfoundland and Labrador. Its funding sources include endowment funds from the regional Grenfell associations in New York, Boston and London. The Board of Directors include representatives from the regional associations, as well as two nominees from Memorial University of Newfoundland.
The Newfoundland Medical Board was established in 1893 as a statutory body by the Legislative Council and House of Assembly of the Colony of Newfoundland with powers for “the making and enforcing of measures necessary for the regulation and practice of medicine, and the protection and preservation of life and health”.
The Medical Act, 2005 continued the Newfoundland Medical Board under the name of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Newfoundland and Labrador.
From 1753 onward, General Quarter Sessions were held at the court to settle civil disputes. The sessions were presided over by the Justices, who during this period, included Thomas Warden, John Garrett Blake, Samuel Harris, and Benjamin Lester. From 1766 a surrogate court was held annually to handle more serious complaints. It was presided over by Naval Officers acting as deputies of the Naval Governor and included Richard Edwards, Richard Locke and John Cartwright.
Established in 1983 as a six week trial project for women and young children, it quickly became a weekly fellowship and support group for women of all ages. The group operates without officers or rules, with the activities of the group dependent on the interests of the members at any one time. The group's activities include crafts, worship activities, chores of various kinds in the church building, outreach activities both church and community oriented, as well as fund-raising, which over the years has been primarily directed for capital efforts of the congregation rather than operational expenses. For most of its existence the group has had no standing within the national church. However, since 2000, it, like all women's groups within The United Church of Canada, is a part of the Women's Ministry Network. The group reports annually to the congregation and the annual reports of the congregation include reports of this organization.
Responsibility for the area covered by the Burin District of the Methodist Church of Canada was transferred to the Burin Presbytery of the United Church of Canada in 1925. The Presbytery was briefly (1928-1929) united with St. John's Presbytery. In 1962 Burin Presbytery was merged with Bonavista Presbytery to form Bonavista-Burin Presbytery.
In 1962 the Presbyteries of St. John's and Carbonear were amalgamated to form Avalon Presbytery. In 1968, a further consolidation took place and Avalon Presbytery was extended to include the territory formerly covered by Burin Presbytery. This was done in order to take advantage of the new network of roads that had been built in the interior of the province.
Within the Presbytery various smaller geographic interest groups or Zones were formed. Of these, the most visible was the St. John's or Metro Zone, whose activities are reflected in the sub-series. In 1985 the pastoral charges in the St. John's area were reconstituted as St. John's Presbytery and were removed from Avalon Presbytery's jurisdiction. Avalon Presbytery was included in the East District at the time of re-organization in 1992.
- fl. 1713-22
The Society was known by various names at one time or another. Beginning as the Society for Educating the Poor of Newfoundland, it in turn adopted the names of the Newfoundland School Society, the School Society of Newfoundland and British North America, the Church of England School Society for Newfoundland and the Colonies, the Colonial Church and School Society and Colonial and Continental Church Society (CCCS).
The Society was formed in 1823 as a result of the energy and interest of a young English merchant, Samuel Codner. The chief aim of the Society was to communicate free instruction to the poor inhabitants of all denominations of the Colony. There was, however an obvious bias in favour of the Anglican Church.
The Society’s first school was established in St. John’s. By 1826 a school was established in Trinity.
The Mercantile Journal, in a lengthy article, had this to say in 1826:
“At Trinity, where the Master arrived in June last, the Magistrates kindly offered him the temporary use of the Court House, for a School Room, in which he had, up to the latest accounts received thence, admitted about 100 children, who have made considerable progress in Education. Mr. Fleet, under whose care this school is placed has been indefatigable in the performance of his duties, and thereby secured the marked approval of all the inhabitants of Trinity. The people, feeling the want of a School House at Trinity, have lately held a Public Meeting, at which £100 was subscribed - an eligible spot of ground has been liberally bestowed by Messrs. Garlands, for the purposes of the Society, and the poor inhabitants have agreed to bring from the Forests during the Winter months the necessary timber for the frame of a suitable building; to these laudable efforts, the Society has added a grant of £100, which, it is expected, will enable the people to erect a House sufficiently large for the admission of all the poor Children of Trinity, and the adjacent Creeks, in the course of the present year."
- 19th cent.
The Sons of Temperance was one of a number of like-minded fraternal and social organizations given to curbing the consumption of alcoholic liquors especially by the breadwinners of families.
There existed a Grand Division, perhaps headquartered in St. John’s.
The Sons of Temperance was active in St. John’s in the latter part of the eighteenth century. During a celebration of the Total Abstinence and Benefit Society at St John’s (1880 -1), the officers of the Sons of Temperance were on the stage and the Sons of Temperance was listed as being “the oldest temperance organization in the city”.
The Sons of Temperance flag was white with a red, white, and blue triangle in the middle of which was a red star.